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[NEW] Stack Data Structure (Introduction and Program) | dtack – Nangdep.vn

dtack: นี่คือโพสต์ที่เกี่ยวข้องกับหัวข้อนี้

Stack is a linear data structure that follows a particular order in which the operations are performed. The order may be LIFO(Last In First Out) or FILO(First In Last Out).

Mainly the following three basic operations are performed in the stack:

  • Push: Adds an item in the stack. If the stack is full, then it is said to be an Overflow condition.
  • Pop: Removes an item from the stack. The items are popped in the reversed order in which they are pushed. If the stack is empty, then it is said to be an Underflow condition.
  • Peek or Top: Returns the top element of the stack.
  • isEmpty: Returns true if the stack is empty, else false.

How to understand a stack practically? 
There are many real-life examples of a stack. Consider the simple example of plates stacked over one another in a canteen. The plate which is at the top is the first one to be removed, i.e. the plate which has been placed at the bottommost position remains in the stack for the longest period of time. So, it can be simply seen to follow the LIFO/FILO order.

Time Complexities of operations on stack:

push(), pop(), isEmpty() and peek() all take O(1) time. We do not run any loop in any of these operations.
 

Applications of stack:

  • Balancing of symbols
  • Infix to Postfix /Prefix conversion
  • Redo-undo features at many places like editors, photoshop.
  • Forward and backward feature in web browsers
  • Used in many algorithms like Tower of Hanoi, tree traversals, stock span problem, histogram problem.
  • Backtracking is one of the algorithm designing techniques. Some examples of backtracking are the Knight-Tour problem, N-Queen problem, find your way through a maze, and game-like chess or checkers in all these problems we dive into someway if that way is not efficient we come back to the previous state and go into some another path. To get back from a current state we need to store the previous state for that purpose we need a stack.
  • In Graph Algorithms like Topological Sorting and Strongly Connected Components
  • In Memory management, any modern computer uses a stack as the primary management for a running purpose. Each program that is running in a computer system has its own memory allocations
  • String reversal is also another application of stack. Here one by one each character gets inserted into the stack. So the first character of the string is on the bottom of the stack and the last element of a string is on the top of the stack. After Performing the pop operations on the stack we get a string in reverse order.

Implementation: 
There are two ways to implement a stack: 

  • Using array
  • Using linked list

Implementing Stack using Arrays

C++

   

#include <bits/stdc++.h>

 

using namespace std;

 

#define MAX 1000

 

class Stack {

    int top;

 

public:

    int a[MAX];

 

    Stack() { top = -1; }

    bool push(int x);

    int pop();

    int peek();

    bool isEmpty();

};

 

bool Stack::push(int x)

{

    if (top >= (MAX - 1)) {

        cout << "Stack Overflow";

        return false;

    }

    else {

        a[++top] = x;

        cout << x << " pushed into stack\n";

        return true;

    }

}

 

int Stack::pop()

{

    if (top < 0) {

        cout << "Stack Underflow";

        return 0;

    }

    else {

        int x = a[top--];

        return x;

    }

}

int Stack::peek()

{

    if (top < 0) {

        cout << "Stack is Empty";

        return 0;

    }

    else {

        int x = a[top];

        return x;

    }

}

 

bool Stack::isEmpty()

{

    return (top < 0);

}

 

int main()

{

    class Stack s;

    s.push(10);

    s.push(20);

    s.push(30);

    cout << s.pop() << " Popped from stack\n";

    

    cout<<"Elements present in stack : ";

    while(!s.isEmpty())

    {

        

        cout<<s.peek()<<" ";

        

        s.pop();

    }

 

    return 0;

}

 
 

C

#include <limits.h>

#include <stdio.h>

#include <stdlib.h>

 

struct Stack {

    int top;

    unsigned capacity;

    int* array;

};

 

struct Stack* createStack(unsigned capacity)

{

    struct Stack* stack = (struct Stack*)malloc(sizeof(struct Stack));

    stack->capacity = capacity;

    stack->top = -1;

    stack->array = (int*)malloc(stack->capacity * sizeof(int));

    return stack;

}

 

int isFull(struct Stack* stack)

{

    return stack->top == stack->capacity - 1;

}

 

int isEmpty(struct Stack* stack)

{

    return stack->top == -1;

}

 

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void push(struct Stack* stack, int item)

{

    if (isFull(stack))

        return;

    stack->array[++stack->top] = item;

    printf("%d pushed to stack\n", item);

}

 

int pop(struct Stack* stack)

{

    if (isEmpty(stack))

        return INT_MIN;

    return stack->array[stack->top--];

}

 

int peek(struct Stack* stack)

{

    if (isEmpty(stack))

        return INT_MIN;

    return stack->array[stack->top];

}

 

int main()

{

    struct Stack* stack = createStack(100);

 

    push(stack, 10);

    push(stack, 20);

    push(stack, 30);

 

    printf("%d popped from stack\n", pop(stack));

 

    return 0;

}

 
 

Java

class Stack {

    static final int MAX = 1000;

    int top;

    int a[] = new int[MAX];

 

    boolean isEmpty()

    {

        return (top < );

    }

    Stack()

    {

        top = -1;

    }

 

    boolean push(int x)

    {

        if (top >= (MAX - 1)) {

            System.out.println("Stack Overflow");

            return false;

        }

        else {

            a[++top] = x;

            System.out.println(x + " pushed into stack");

            return true;

        }

    }

 

    int pop()

    {

        if (top < ) {

            System.out.println("Stack Underflow");

            return ;

        }

        else {

            int x = a[top--];

            return x;

        }

    }

 

    int peek()

    {

        if (top < ) {

            System.out.println("Stack Underflow");

            return ;

        }

        else {

            int x = a[top];

            return x;

        }

    }

    

    void print(){

    for(int i = top;i>-1;i--){

      System.out.print(" "+ a[i]);

    }

  }

}

 

class Main {

    public static void main(String args[])

    {

        Stack s = new Stack();

        s.push(10);

        s.push(20);

        s.push(30);

        System.out.println(s.pop() + " Popped from stack");

        System.out.println("Top element is :" + s.peek());

        System.out.print("Elements present in stack :");

        s.print();

    }

}

 
 

Python

 

from sys import maxsize

 

def createStack():

    stack = []

    return stack

 

def isEmpty(stack):

    return len(stack) ==

 

def push(stack, item):

    stack.append(item)

    print(item + " pushed to stack ")

     

def pop(stack):

    if (isEmpty(stack)):

        return str(-maxsize -1)

     

    return stack.pop()

 

def peek(stack):

    if (isEmpty(stack)):

        return str(-maxsize -1)

    return stack[len(stack) - 1]

 

stack = createStack()

push(stack, str(10))

push(stack, str(20))

push(stack, str(30))

print(pop(stack) + " popped from stack")

 
 

C#

using System;

 

namespace ImplementStack {

class Stack {

    private int[] ele;

    private int top;

    private int max;

    public Stack(int size)

    {

        ele = new int[size];

        top = -1;

        max = size;

    }

 

    public void push(int item)

    {

        if (top == max - 1) {

            Console.WriteLine("Stack Overflow");

            return;

        }

        else {

            ele[++top] = item;

        }

    }

 

    public int pop()

    {

        if (top == -1) {

            Console.WriteLine("Stack is Empty");

            return -1;

        }

        else {

            Console.WriteLine("{0} popped from stack ", ele[top]);

            return ele[top--];

        }

    }

 

    public int peek()

    {

        if (top == -1) {

            Console.WriteLine("Stack is Empty");

            return -1;

        }

        else {

            Console.WriteLine("{0} popped from stack ", ele[top]);

            return ele[top];

        }

    }

 

    public void printStack()

    {

        if (top == -1) {

            Console.WriteLine("Stack is Empty");

            return;

        }

        else {

            for (int i = 0; i <= top; i++) {

                Console.WriteLine("{0} pushed into stack", ele[i]);

            }

        }

    }

}

 

class Program {

    static void Main()

    {

        Stack p = new Stack(5);

 

        p.push(10);

        p.push(20);

        p.push(30);

        p.printStack();

        p.pop();

    }

}

}

 
 

Output : 

10 pushed into stack
20 pushed into stack
30 pushed into stack
30 Popped from stack
Top element is : 20
Elements present in stack : 20 10  

Pros: Easy to implement. Memory is saved as pointers are not involved. 
Cons: It is not dynamic. It doesn’t grow and shrink depending on needs at runtime.
 Implementing Stack using Linked List:

C++

#include <bits/stdc++.h>

using namespace std;

 

class StackNode {

public:

    int data;

    StackNode* next;

};

 

StackNode* newNode(int data)

{

    StackNode* stackNode = new StackNode();

    stackNode->data = data;

    stackNode->next = NULL;

    return stackNode;

}

 

int isEmpty(StackNode* root)

{

    return !root;

}

 

void push(StackNode** root, int data)

{

    StackNode* stackNode = newNode(data);

    stackNode->next = *root;

    *root = stackNode;

    cout << data << " pushed to stack\n";

}

 

int pop(StackNode** root)

{

    if (isEmpty(*root))

        return INT_MIN;

    StackNode* temp = *root;

    *root = (*root)->next;

    int popped = temp->data;

    free(temp);

 

    return popped;

}

 

int peek(StackNode* root)

{

    if (isEmpty(root))

        return INT_MIN;

    return root->data;

}

 

int main()

{

    StackNode* root = NULL;

 

    push(&root, 10);

    push(&root, 20);

    push(&root, 30);

 

    cout << pop(&root) << " popped from stack\n";

 

    cout << "Top element is " << peek(root) << endl;

     

    cout<<"Elements present in stack : ";

     

    while(!isEmpty(root))

    {

        

        cout<<peek(root)<<" ";

        

        pop(&root);

    }

 

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    return 0;

}

 

 
 

C

#include <limits.h>

#include <stdio.h>

#include <stdlib.h>

 

struct StackNode {

    int data;

    struct StackNode* next;

};

 

struct StackNode* newNode(int data)

{

    struct StackNode* stackNode =

      (struct StackNode*)

      malloc(sizeof(struct StackNode));

    stackNode->data = data;

    stackNode->next = NULL;

    return stackNode;

}

 

int isEmpty(struct StackNode* root)

{

    return !root;

}

 

void push(struct StackNode** root, int data)

{

    struct StackNode* stackNode = newNode(data);

    stackNode->next = *root;

    *root = stackNode;

    printf("%d pushed to stack\n", data);

}

 

int pop(struct StackNode** root)

{

    if (isEmpty(*root))

        return INT_MIN;

    struct StackNode* temp = *root;

    *root = (*root)->next;

    int popped = temp->data;

    free(temp);

 

    return popped;

}

 

int peek(struct StackNode* root)

{

    if (isEmpty(root))

        return INT_MIN;

    return root->data;

}

 

int main()

{

    struct StackNode* root = NULL;

 

    push(&root, 10);

    push(&root, 20);

    push(&root, 30);

 

    printf("%d popped from stack\n", pop(&root));

 

    printf("Top element is %d\n", peek(root));

 

    return 0;

}

 
 

Java

 

public class StackAsLinkedList {

 

    StackNode root;

 

    static class StackNode {

        int data;

        StackNode next;

 

        StackNode(int data) { this.data = data; }

    }

 

    public boolean isEmpty()

    {

        if (root == null) {

            return true;

        }

        else

            return false;

    }

 

    public void push(int data)

    {

        StackNode newNode = new StackNode(data);

 

        if (root == null) {

            root = newNode;

        }

        else {

            StackNode temp = root;

            root = newNode;

            newNode.next = temp;

        }

        System.out.println(data + " pushed to stack");

    }

 

    public int pop()

    {

        int popped = Integer.MIN_VALUE;

        if (root == null) {

            System.out.println("Stack is Empty");

        }

        else {

            popped = root.data;

            root = root.next;

        }

        return popped;

    }

 

    public int peek()

    {

        if (root == null) {

            System.out.println("Stack is empty");

            return Integer.MIN_VALUE;

        }

        else {

            return root.data;

        }

    }

 

    

    public static void main(String[] args)

    {

 

        StackAsLinkedList sll = new StackAsLinkedList();

 

        sll.push(10);

        sll.push(20);

        sll.push(30);

 

        System.out.println(sll.pop()

                           + " popped from stack");

 

        System.out.println("Top element is " + sll.peek());

    }

}

 
 

Python

 

 

 

class StackNode:

 

    

    def __init__(self, data):

        self.data = data

        self.next = None

 

 

class Stack:

 

    

    def __init__(self):

        self.root = None

 

    def isEmpty(self):

        return True if self.root is None else False

 

    def push(self, data):

        newNode = StackNode(data)

        newNode.next = self.root

        self.root = newNode

        print "% d pushed to stack" % (data)

 

    def pop(self):

        if (self.isEmpty()):

            return float("-inf")

        temp = self.root

        self.root = self.root.next

        popped = temp.data

        return popped

 

    def peek(self):

        if self.isEmpty():

            return float("-inf")

        return self.root.data

 

 

stack = Stack()

stack.push(10)

stack.push(20)

stack.push(30)

 

print "% d popped from stack" % (stack.pop())

print "Top element is % d " % (stack.peek())

 

 
 

C#

using System;

 

public class StackAsLinkedList {

 

    StackNode root;

 

    public class StackNode {

        public int data;

        public StackNode next;

 

        public StackNode(int data) { this.data = data; }

    }

 

    public bool isEmpty()

    {

        if (root == null) {

            return true;

        }

        else

            return false;

    }

 

    public void push(int data)

    {

        StackNode newNode = new StackNode(data);

 

        if (root == null) {

            root = newNode;

        }

        else {

            StackNode temp = root;

            root = newNode;

            newNode.next = temp;

        }

        Console.WriteLine(data + " pushed to stack");

    }

 

    public int pop()

    {

        int popped = int.MinValue;

        if (root == null) {

            Console.WriteLine("Stack is Empty");

        }

        else {

            popped = root.data;

            root = root.next;

        }

        return popped;

    }

 

    public int peek()

    {

        if (root == null) {

            Console.WriteLine("Stack is empty");

            return int.MinValue;

        }

        else {

            return root.data;

        }

    }

 

    

    public static void Main(String[] args)

    {

 

        StackAsLinkedList sll = new StackAsLinkedList();

 

        sll.push(10);

        sll.push(20);

        sll.push(30);

 

        Console.WriteLine(sll.pop() + " popped from stack");

 

        Console.WriteLine("Top element is " + sll.peek());

    }

}

 

 
 

Output:

10 pushed to stack
20 pushed to stack
30 pushed to stack
30 popped from stack
Top element is 20
Elements present in stack : 20 10 

Pros: The linked list implementation of a stack can grow and shrink according to the needs at runtime. 
Cons: Requires extra memory due to involvement of pointers.

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https://youtu.be/vZEuSFXSMDI 
 
We will cover the implementation of applications of the stack in separate posts.

Stack Set -2 (Infix to Postfix)  

Quiz: Stack Questions

References: 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stack_%28abstract_data_type%29#Problem_Description

Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above.

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*10,000 STACKS* 5 YOUTUBERS HOLD LEAGUE OF LEGENDS HOSTAGE - BunnyFuFuu

TREASURE : PARK JEONG WOO x HARUTO – Stack It Up (Liam Payne x A Boogie Wit Da Hoodie Cover.)


TREASURE 트레저 PARKJEONGWOO 박정우 HARUTO 하루토 COVER_VIDEO LiamPayne ABoogieWitDaHoodie StackItUp YG

TREASURE : PARK JEONG WOO x HARUTO - Stack It Up (Liam Payne x A Boogie Wit Da Hoodie Cover.)

Hướng dẫn chi tiết kỹ thuật Dice Stacking trào lưu lắc Xí Ngầu như phim


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Dice Stacking hay tạm dịch là trào lưu lắc xí ngầu thành cột đứng, là một trào lưu đã có trên youtube từ gần 10 năm trước. Trên kênh ToyStation chính thì Anh Khoai Tây từng làm 1 video nói sơ về trò này.
Trong video AKT sẽ giới thiệu về Dice Stacking và hướng dẫn chi tiết các kỹ thuật cơ bản để một người mới chơi có thể luyện tập. Và đồng thời cũng sẽ truyền nghề lại cho các thành viên của DTMX, hy vọng là được…mà chắc khó quá.
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Những link chính thức của cộng đồng ToyStation:
Youtube ToyStation: https://www.youtube.com/c/ToyStationVietnam
Youtube ToyStation Plus: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCIZu3OHYiHqetVTYDdaLi9g?sub_confirmation=1
Facebook ToyStation: https://www.facebook.com/ToyStationVietnam
Facebook ToyStaion Shop: https://www.facebook.com/ToyStationShop
💖💖💖 Nếu các bạn thích những video của ToyStation hãy cho anh Khoai Tây biết bằng cách bấm nút SUBSCRIBE / ĐĂNG KÝ , để anh Khoai Tây có thể làm thêm nhiều hơn nữa những video thật thú vị nhé. Cám ơn các bạn nhiều. :) 💖💖💖
Music: TheFatRat Time Lapse https://youtu.be/ABuexNuzUro

Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)
Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 License
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/b…

Hướng dẫn chi tiết kỹ thuật Dice Stacking trào lưu lắc Xí Ngầu như phim

นอกจากการดูบทความนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถดูข้อมูลที่เป็นประโยชน์อื่นๆ อีกมากมายที่เราให้ไว้ที่นี่: ดูบทความเพิ่มเติมในหมวดหมู่Wiki

ขอบคุณมากสำหรับการดูหัวข้อโพสต์ dtack

Cẩm Nhung

Xin chào các bạn, Mình tên là Cẩm Nhung, như bao cô gái khác mình cũng đam mê mỹ phẩm say mê làm đẹp và chỉnh chu cho nhan sắc của mình. Vì thế, mình muốn chia sẻ những bí quyết làm đẹp của mình cho các bạn để các bạn có thể cẩn thận hơn cũng như tìm hiểu được những cách chăm sóc da đẹp nhất.

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