The original 7iinch ASUS eeePC.
One of the most misunderstood terms in the business world is disruptive technology. Too many companies—and the marketers in charge of bringing these companies’ innovations to market—assume that “disruptive” connotes a highly-sophisticated, high-end product with cutting-edge technology that will appeal to early adopters. Actually, Harvard’s Clayton Christensen argued the opposite in his groundbreaking book on business innovation, The Innovator’s Dilemma. As Christensen pointed out again and again, “disruptive technologies were exactly those that did not appeal to entrenched market leaders because they tended to under-perform existing technologies and served a less-profitable consumer demographic.” (Source: Dominic Basulto)
Taking Christensen’s insight on disruptive innovation (summarized so well by Basulto) as the starting point, we could just as easily extend that thought to say that those innovations that are simpler, cheaper and offer value to the less profitable—those successful at the Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP), in other words—are the ones which contain seeds of disruption in markets outside of their intended audience.
Perhaps its time we took a closer look at “underperforming” products developed specifically for the less profitable consumer, along with their supporting ecosystem innovations in business models, distributions and pricing.
The original 7-inch ASUS eeePC is an excellent case in point. Inspired by the concept of the $100 laptop for the developing world, called a ‘children’s computer,’ sneered at for its teeny keyboard and bare minimum features, it was the wedge that has changed the computer market of today, creating an entirely new category—the netbook— and influencing pricing and form factor for personal computers for every market, rich or poor, in less than 3 years.
But it doesn’t stop there. Indeed, tomorrow’s consuming classes are beginning to show signs of a shift in perception of price/performance and value for money, as evidenced by McKinsey’s most recent report:
There’s evidence that the shift of consumers away from more expensive products is a widespread trend. In the consumer electronics industry, for example, McKinsey research found that 60 percent of consumers were more interested in a core set of product features at a reasonable price than in the bells and whistles of the latest and greatest technology at a higher price. Similarly, in the building-products industry, there is a trend away from premium-priced design features and toward simpler, more basic designs. Understanding this challenging shift in consumer behaviour is necessary for companies to compete successfully. It represents an opportunity for those that respond quickly and effectively to differentiate themselves from their peers.
This finding has been echoed by the likes of HJ Heinz’ CEO, The Huffington Report and even consumer research in Germany. Perhaps its time we took a closer look at a few more examples of such “underperforming” products designed and developed specifically for the less profitable consumer, along with their supporting ecosystem innovations in business models, distributions and pricing. Some have already begun showing the ripples of disruptive influence way beyond any particular product category or service.
Image: Tata website
The Tata Group
After demonstrating their commitment to low-income markets with the launch of the 100,000 rupee Nano, the Tata’s have taken the lessons from constraint-driven innovation to other product categories. A renewed focus on low income housing is on the way.
Their most recent product to be released was the Swach, an eco-friendly potable water supply system. Echoing elements of the Nano—strong product design, uncompromising adherence to meeting a preset retail price and modularity in construction and usage—the Swach is half the price of the nearest competitor (Unilever) in the low cost water filter market.
Distribution piggybacks onto their existing channels of supplying Tata Salt to myriads of kirana shops and corner stores. Marketing has already begun to lower the barriers to “technology adoption” by referring to the rice husk and ash filtration unit as a “bulb,” to simply be changed when required. In addition, there’s no lock-in to purchase replacement parts, as the Bulb can be purchased for 1/3 the price without the need to buy the whole container. Tata hopes that people will simply fit the Bulb to any potable water container in the house—the important thing is that they have access to affordable drinking water. Their next target market is the African continent.
The entry level mobile phone
The Nokia 1100 exemplifies Christensen’s observation on disruptive innovation—a simple, low cost GSM device, over 200 million have been sold, making it the best selling cellphone in the world today. But the reach and influence of this device has gone further and deeper than imagined when the product was first launched. There are now over 4 billion mobile phone users in the world, a critical mass that gives rise to endless possibilities.
In India, the model was released around the time Reliance Comm announced a major price point discount on cellular calls, kick-starting the undeniable wireless revolution taking place in that entire market today. Operators are battling for the elusive fortune by dropping prices to unprecedented levels, even as local manufacturers go after the common man with cheap imports and flashy features. Meanwhile, Kenya’s Safaricom launched mPesa, a mobile based payment system that works on any GSM phone, which is today the poster child for successful services targeted at the high volume/low margin market. In its own way, it’s disrupting financial and banking services anywhere there is a cellular signal.
The Chotukool. Image: Godrej and Boyce
Re-imagined household appliances
Refrigerators have come to the forefront of the news with the launch of Godrej’s Chotu Kool—a top loading unit co-created with their target audience in rural India, it does not require electricity and has one tenth the number of parts required in a conventional fridge. The refrigerator weighs only 7.8 kg, runs on a cooling chip and a fan similar to those used to cool computers. Chotukool consumes half the power consumed by regular refrigerators and uses high-end insulation to stay cool for hours without power while costing only Rs 3250 (USD 69). It is being distributed and marketed through partnerships with micro-finance institutions.
As this clay based precursor, the Rs 3000 (USD 55) Mitti Cool demonstrates, there have been a plethora of alternative solutions to the needs defined by basic household appliances. In the searing heat of the Indian summer, illnesses can be prevented by keeping milk and cooked food too cool to spoil. What Godrej has done however is taken the basic concept of low cost solutions and applied it to a mass market consumer good, to be marketed, branded and sold just like any other home appliance. Less moving parts imply ease of repair and maintenance, lower cost of ownership and possibilities for eco-innovations, a trend that could permeate the way appliances are currently designed and built for more profitable markets.
Image: Benjamin Stone, Toughstuff
Alternative Power, Affordably
Where solar power has not really managed to take off in the established markets connected 24/7 to the power grid and remains still an expensive piece of additional equipment for the hobbyist, its beginning to show up as an affordable yet safe alternative in the growth markets of the developing world where kerosene is still the primary source of heat and light.
Product design and development for these challenging markets show all the signs of being a form of disruptive technology or innovation.
Katie Fehrenbacher wonders if solar technology will manage to leapfrog the need for an infrastructural grid in these countries, and mentions Duron’s products on the market for USD 130. Recently, a yet to be released panel, by another California startup ReGen and designed by design guru Robert Brunner, was hinted to be in the shops by June at a price point of USD 199.
In the meantime, available for sale in Madagascar and Kenya are the ToughStuff line of solar panels and accessories for just USD 30—in fact, even at that lower price, claims the company’s website, they are still able to donate one equivalent kit in the form of a “business in a bag” to a would be entreprenuer in Africa. One could set up as the neighbourhood ‘chargepoint’ for mobile phones or radio batteries or even rent out the whole kit for others to use.
Disruption in design thinking?
Certainly, product design and development for these challenging markets show all the signs of being a form of disruptive technology or innovation per Christensen’s view—they are simpler and easier, provide flexibility in use and cost and are often far more cost effective utilizing less materials and resources.
But they also go one step beyond the obvious when we think of product development for the lower income demographic or “Bottom of the Pyramid”—they tend to be designed for shared use or multiple functionality, they are often distributed or marketed as a way to increase one’s income and by virtue of the cost constraints, tend to use less material and energy or other resources.
When we take the shift in observed consumer behaviour in the highly developed markets of the United States—as reported by McKinsey or consumer research in Germany—there’s a hint of the need to shift the way we approach design, for all markets, not just the BoP. Where design of consumer products tended to begin with the assumptions of individual ownership or entertainment or passive consumption of throwaway convenience, its time to look at increasing productivity and opportunities for income generation while minimizing the impact on the environment and need for resources.
With thanks to Mikko Koskinen and the Aalto Design Factory for their contribution to the framing of this article.
Adding Service in the Asp.Net Unique Architecture Framework (AUA)
All businesses are implemented in the form of services and created in the service layer. The service layer uses the Service Infrastructure layer and automatically connects to each service in its own Repository. The advantage of this approach is that the developer is not involved in the two concepts of repository and service and focuses only on the service itself. The service has its own builtin Repository, which is one of the most important features of the AUA framework architecture. For example, if we want to write a service for Student Entity, we need to first create an interface for Student Entity which inherits from the IGenericEntityService class. At the third step we need to create a Service in Services directory. The service must inherit from the GenericEntityService class and implement the IStudentService interface built in the previous step. By default, the service created contains all the functions required to work with Repository. List of Repository functions that are automatically added to each service. Implement the business into the services. One service can use other services. You can easily inject services into another and use it.
Using the AUA ( Asp.Net Unique Architecture ) Framework, you can easily have better, faster, and more orderly and focused coding. This framework is based on new and uptodate concepts, structures and architectures, including: Clean Architecture, Clean Code, Domaindriven design (DDD), Lmax Architecture , SOLID Principle, Code Refactoring, GRASP (objectoriented design principle). Software projects require constant changes and updates. If the structure develops in the wrong way, it will prevent changes and extensions, and most of the time will lead to task duplication or rewriting of the project from scratch. To get rid of the complexity and task duplication that most programmers and developers face, which is also caused by the inconsistency of code at different levels of the program, we need a simple consistent structure for writing software projects so that we can hide some of the complexity and focus on business of the task. For example, the Bootstrap framework is a very useful framework for Front End, but few people would prefer to use frameworks like Bootstrap for design, and write all of their design with CSS from the beginning. For the Back End section, however, a simple, generalpurpose framework can save time and cost and produce highquality code and a uniform architecture. This framework allows developers to develop their projects based on an appropriate integrated pattern. The framework must be flexible enough to allow the programmer to apply any changes needed, relying on its robust structure. Why Framework? One of the problems of software companies is the lack of the right structure for developing their projects. As a result, they have often produced such complex and nested codes that creating changes in one part of the project severely affects or disrupts other parts. Therefore, lack of the right structure for development makes it impossible to update the previous code and reduces the efficiency of the team to almost zero. The reason for this is the difference in coding and lack of structure and architecture. The development team must first agree on a set of rules and structures. Architectural patterns are not the result of a programmer’s experiences; they have resulted from the experiences of hundreds of programmers and design professionals over years. These frameworks are not innovations or inventions, but are feedbacks on redesign and recoding that programmers have been involved with in order to achieve the highest levels of flexibility, extensibility and reusability. Their use makes the produced codes more simple, flexible and extensible. The use of a framework can help us save time and cost and make it easier to document and maintain the system.
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React Native – ASP.NET Core App in Arabic 48: Deploying API to Digital Ocean
In this video we explained how to setup a linux server on Digital Ocean and how to deploy a containerized API on that server
Get your 100$ from Digital Ocean:
The link to the live swagger:
Your Chores is an application we are going to build on react native, with Asp.net Core Api server in Arabic
KALIMPONG CUT OFF DUE TO LANDSLIDE, TOURISTS STRANDED AT LAVA
KALIMPONG CUT OFF DUE TO LANDSLIDE, TOURISTS STRANDED AT LAVA
Master ASP.NET MVC | SQL Server | Entity Framework by developing Complete Projects in 8 Hours
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In this video you will learn about Master ASP.NET MVC | SQL Server | Entity Framework by developing Complete Projects in 8 Hours
ASP.NET MVC – Course Contents
01Introduction to ASP NET MVC5 Course
02Setting up Development Environment
03How to create MVC5 Web Application from scratch
04How to Pass Data from Controller to View
05How to Create Models
06How to Pass Model or Object from Controller to View
07How to Pass List of Objects from Controller to View and Iterate over the list of objects in View
08Action Links \u0026 How to Create Navigation Links and Navigate to Different Pages
09Passing Models Data to View and Handle Null Exceptions in View
10View Models in Action How and Why to Use View Models
11Default Routes and How to Pass Parameters to Action Result
12Convention Based Routing How to Create Custom Routes
13Part 1 Attribute Routing
13Part 2 Attribute Routing Constraints
14ViewBag Temp Data Model View Model Best Way to Pass Data From Controller to View
15Razor View Razor View Engine How to write any C Code in Razor View Conditions Iterations Logics everything
16Create Database Setting up Connection String How to Connect with Database
17Create HTML Forms Save Data into SQL Server using ADO.NET and INSERT Query
18Load Data from SQL and Display in HTML Table using ADO.NET and Select Statement
19Delete Data from SQL using HTML Table Action Link using ADO.NET and Delete Statement
20Save and Edit or Update in Side Single View and Action Result using ADO.NET and Update Statement
21Load Data from SQL and Display in HTML Table using ADO.NET and Stored Procedures
22Delete Data from SQL using HTML Table Action Link using ADO.NET and Stored Procedure
23Insert and Update Operations in Same View and Store Procedure using ADO.NET
24Search Data from SQL and Display in HTML Table using ADO.NET and Store Procedure
25Server Side Validations using Data Annotations
27Installing Microsoft Entity Framework Web Applications
28ORM Object Relational Mapping ORM Introduction Advantages – Disadvantages
29 Entity Framework Introduction Advantages and Disadvantages
30Approaches Used in Entity Framework Best Approach for Entity Framework
31Which is better Code First or Database First in Entity Framework Best Approach for Entity Framework
32Generating Model Classes from existing Database using Entity Framework Database First Approach
33Load Data from SQL and display in HTML Table using Entity Framework Database First
34Delete Data from SQL using Entity Framework Db First and using Dispose Method
35Save Data into SQL Database using Entity Framework Db First
36Save and Update Record in SQL in a Same View using Entity Framework DB First 37Search Data from SQL and Display in HTML Table using Entity Framework Db First Lambda Expression and LINQ
38Entity Framework Code First Create Database and Enable and Use Migrations
39Overriding Conventions in Entity Framework Code First Use Data Annotations for Table Design
40Create Foreign Keys and Navigation Properties in Entity Framework Code First Migrations
41CRUD Operations using Entity Framework Code First
42Load Data into Drop Down List using View Models using Entity Framework Code First
43Save Data into SQL using View Models and Model Binding using Entity Framework Code First
44Eager Loading and Include for Loading Relative Objects Display Products with Categories in ASP.NET MVC using Entity Framework Code First
45Loading Form Data with Drop Down Value for Update using Entity Framework Code First
46How to Seed Data into Database using Code First Migrations
47User Registration and Login System in using Entity Framework Code First
48How to avoid duplicate results and display custom error message using Entity Framework Code First
49User Registration User Login and Logout using Sessions Hide and Display Menu to different Users using Entity Framework
50Load and Display Data from SQL and Create Bootstrap Modal inside to save data using Entity Framework
51Save Data into SQL using Bootstrap Modal(Popup) and jQuery Ajax and Entity Framework
52Display Confirmation Box before Delete Operation using Bootstrap Modal(Popup) and jQuery Ajax and Entity Framework
53Delete Record from database using Bootstrap Modal Confirmation(Popup) and jQuery Ajax Entity Framework
54How to use bootstrap slider or Carousel Entity Framework
55How to Upload and Save Images (slider images) into database using Entity Framework
56Load Images from Database and Display Slider or Carousel dynamically using Entity Framework
57 ASP.NET MVC Web API
58Developing Complete Web API
59Testing Our Web API on Postman
60 Creating Complete Ecommerce Web App
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